Youth And Economy Essay

The Problem of Youth Unemployment

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Introduction
Youth unemployment is a term used for people between the ages of 15-19, that do not attend school or tertiary level and don't have any form of paid job. There are reasons causing this growing problem. These being;
employers not wanting inexperienced woorkers,
the low rate of pay and
the transition period from education to the work force after the completion of year 12.

Fortunately, there are a vast majority of "youth friendly industries". This implies that, when certain companies are labelled a "youth friendly industry" not only do they employ trained adults but also the inexperienced youth of society. To further develop skills and decline the rate of early school leavers, the government has intervened to counteract this situation in a few ways. Three of the most popular programs are;
Aus Study Payments,
VET courses and
facilities to train people undergoing transition from schooling to work.

Why youth are unemployed
To increase production and sales, employers often seek workers that are more experienced. This limits the youth to a small portion of jobs. Due to their inexperience and lack of knowledge, employers do not want to spend money and time training them. But in other cases where firms accept inexperience, the pay tends to be very low, which doesn't attract them from working. The inexperienced youth pay rates range from $5-$10 per hour. But alarmingly, in part-time work the most employable age is between 15-19 years of age holding 28% of males working part-time. The employers see them as less efficient and less valuable so their pay is legally less. In some circumstances you will find that companies employ allot of the youth population, thus they can cut back on their total amount of wages they owe and earn larger profits.

There are, in some cases, firms that employ young and inexperienced workers, as mentioned before they are usually known as "youth friendly industries". Industries such as McDonalds, Coles/Myer, Safeway/Woolworths and KFC just to name a few, are the leading retail and takeaway outlets employing youth. Not only do they employ them but they provide them with the essential training to perform their duties with maximum efficiency. Some people see working as an obstacle towards school and homework and others don't want to work for ridiculously low pay. In conjunction with a high youth unemployment rate the government has introduced schemes to counteract this problem and to keep the youth population in school and out of the workforce.

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Essay on The Problem of Youth Unemployment - Introduction Youth unemployment is a term used for people between the ages of 15-19, that do not attend school or tertiary level and don't have any form of paid job. There are reasons causing this growing problem. These being; employers not wanting inexperienced woorkers, the low rate of pay and the transition period from education to the work force after the completion of year 12. Fortunately, there are a vast majority of "youth friendly industries". This implies that, when certain companies are labelled a "youth friendly industry" not only do they employ trained adults but also the inexperienced youth of society....   [tags: Economics, Unemployment Essays]627 words
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"Youth Friendly Industries"
As the number of school leavers increases, the government has taken action in a few ways. The first program is "Aus study" payments. This means that if you're in year 12 and your parents earn a particularly low wage you receive this payment. The other more popular program is VET (Vocational Education and Training) courses. This is more effective in keeping youth at school to complete year 11 and 12. This also teaches them new skills as well as getting paid for their duties. This is the course outline; it covers over 40 areas where you work for 2 days, go to school for 2 days and go to TAFE for the remaining 1 day. This will enable students to complete their VCE (Victorian Certificate of Education Years 11 + 12) and gain a VET qualification in their selected traineeship or apprenticeship. (To see statistics related to trends of tertiary and school attendance, CLICK HERE)

As government intervention starts to take more effect you may see the numbers of unemployed youth start to decline slowly. More funding should go into new projects instead on leisure facilities or profit making projects. This will increase the efficiency of the youth, keep them in school, reduce the total unemployment rate and make them more employable for their future.



Youth empowerment is a process where children and young people are encouraged to take charge of their lives. They do this by addressing their situation and then take action in order to improve their access to resources and transform their consciousness through their beliefs, values, and attitudes.[1] Youth empowerment aims to improve quality of life. Youth empowerment is achieved through participation in youth empowerment programs. However scholars argue that children’s rights implementation should go beyond learning about formal rights and procedures to give birth to a concrete experience of rights.[2] There are numerous models that youth empowerment programs use that help youth achieve empowerment. A variety of youth empowerment initiatives are underway around the world. These programs can be through non-profit organizations, government organizations, schools or private organizations.

Youth empowerment is different than youth development because development is centered on developing individuals, while empowerment is focused on creating greater community change relies on the development of individual capacity.[3]

Empowerment movements, including youth empowerment, originate, gain momentum, become viable, and become institutionalized.[1] Youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. Activities may focus on youth-led media, youth rights, youth councils, youth activism, youth involvement in community decision-making,[4] and other methods.

Elements of empowerment[edit]

Empowerment Theory[edit]

Empowerment theory focuses on processes that enable participation; enhance control through shared decision making; and create opportunities to learn, practice, and increase skills.[5][6] Empowerment theory suggests that engaging youth in pro-social, meaningful, and community-enhancing activities that the youth themselves define and control, helps youth gain vital skills, responsibilities, and confidence necessary to become productive and healthy adults.[7]

Types of empowerment[edit]

Youth empowerment examines six interdependent dimensions: psychological, community, organizational, economic, social and cultural.[1][8] Psychological empowerment enhances individual's consciousness, belief in self-efficacy, awareness and knowledge of problems and solutions and of how individuals can address problems that harm their quality of life.[1] This dimension aims to create self-confidence and give youth the skills to acquire knowledge.[8]Community empowerment focuses on enhancing the community through leadership development, improving communication, and creating a network of support to mobilize the community to address concerns.[1] Organizational empowerment aims to create a base of resources for a community, including voluntary organizations, unions and associations that aim to protect, promote and advocate for the powerless.[1] Economic empowerment teaches entrepreneurial skills, how to take ownership of their assets and how to have income security.[8] Social empowerment teaches youth about social inclusion and literacy as well as helping kids find the resources to be proactive in their communities.[8] Cultural empowerment aims to recreate cultural practices and redefine cultural rules and norms for youth.[8] Through these dimensions of empowerment, programs can work on empowering youth in one or more aspects of their lives.

Goals of empowerment[edit]

Youth empowerment programs are aimed at creating healthier and higher qualities of life for underprivileged or at-risk youth.[1] The five competencies of a healthy youth are: (1) positive sense of self, (2) self- control, (3) decision-making skills, (4) a moral system of belief, and (5) pro-social connectedness. Developmental interventions and programs have to be anchored on these competencies that define positive outcomes of healthy youth.[1]

Measurable empowerment[edit]

Over the last two decades, quality of life (QOL) has emerged as an important unit of measurement to evaluate the success of empowerment programs.[1] It is used as a goal of programs and as well as an indicator of effectiveness. However, there is no standard definition of QOL. A person's QOL is dependent upon subjective evaluation of the individual aspects of that individual's life.[1]

Positive development settings[edit]

Youth empowerment programs thrive in positive developmental settings. Positive developmental settings promote youth competence, confidence and connections.[9] Two features of the positive developmental youth settings are supportive relationships and support for efficacy and mattering. Supportive relationships are those that are between youth and non-familial adults that foster trust and respect. Support for efficacy and mattering specifically focuses on youth being active, instrumental agents of change in their communities, collective decision-making and adults listen to and respect their voice.[9]

Youth empowerment programs[edit]

There are various types of empowerment programs across the globe that empower youth through many different tactics and programs. Programs can operate in a variety of settings. The majority of programs operate in more than one setting, which may be a key factor in their success.[10] The beneficial outcomes to youth empowerment programs are improved social skills, improved behavior, increased academic achievement, increased self-esteem and increased self-efficacy.[11]

There are programs are aimed at just empowering women and young girls. Regardless of specific goals or methods, empowering effects include improving women’s wellbeing, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, and enhancing social status by teaching technical and organizational skills.[8]

Other youth empowerment programs are focused on poverty alleviation. Living standards are for those living in poverty are declining causing forms of deprivation as it relates to food, resources and education.[12] Programs aimed at empowering poor youth, work toward livelihood protection or livelihood promotion.[12]

There are also empowerment movements that use the social action model, aiming for disadvantaged people to become empowered, organized, and educated so that they may create change.[1] These programs advocate for constructive confrontations to enhance the social power of people who are considered disadvantaged. Another model is the 5C's model that focuses on emphasizing competence, confidence, connection, character and caring.[13] A sixth C of contribution to society was later added.[13] This model focuses primarily on engagement as a key marker of positive youth development, emphasizing the need to foster initiative. Youth-adult partnerships are another type of empowerment method used around the world. This method has been defined as a developmental process and a community practice. The partnership involves people of different ages working together on community issues over a period of time.[9] The method emphasizes reciprocity among adults and youth with a focus on shared decision making and reflective learning. The concept of shared control is key for empowering youth.

Youth empowerment has also been used as a framework to prevent and reduce youth violence.[7][14] Research shows that these youth empowerment programs can improve conflict avoidance and resolution skills, increase group leadership skills, and civic efficacy [14] and improve ethnic identity and reduce racial conflict.[15]

Examples of youth empowerment programs[edit]

Around the globe there are various empowerment programs focused on a wide variety of things and this is not a comprehensive list. Unsuccessful youth empowerment programs have not been carefully documented or published in case studies.[1]

In Namibia, one popular empowerment program is Pots of Hope. Pots of Hope's main goal is to reduce the vulnerability youth to HIV and Aids through education, information and awareness, as well as income security projects.[16] Pots of Hope works by educating, and providing counseling to those in rural settings who do not have access to those resources.[16] This program focuses on organizational empowerment within the community.

Within the United States there are countless empowerment programs for youth. Urban 4-H is a culturally responsive, community-based practice that authentically engages families, youth and the community in the development of youth.[17] Urban 4-H is an example of community empowerment that focuses on the economic and social dimensions of empowerment. The program helps youth build skills to enable them to overcome economic and social barriers while recognizing the importance of self-directed learning for youth. Urban 4-H focuses on empowering youth to think critically, communicate across cultural boundaries and lead others.[17]

The United Nations has numerous development programs, one of them being youth empowerment programs. The United Nations provides support to national policy development surrounding empowerment within the five regions.[18] They do this by providing evidence-based policy guidance and programmatic support by promoting the active participation of youth in society. The UNDP promotes inclusive youth participation in effective and democratic governance, economic empowerment of youth, strengthened youth engagement in building resilience in their communities, inclusion of youth in the future development agenda, including through consultations and discussions.[18] The United Nations youth empowerment programs examine all four dimensions of youth empowerment and seeks to improve all of them.

USAID has youth empowerment programs set up around the world that are aimed at civic engagement, access to resources and opportunities for education and employment.[19]

For a more comprehensive list: List of youth empowerment organizations

Government involvement in empowerment[edit]

Youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. Local, state, provincial, regional, national, and international government agencies and nonprofit community-based organizations provide programs centered on youth empowerment.[20] Activities involved therein may focus on youth-led media, youth rights, youth councils, youth activism, youth involvement in community decision-making,[4] and other methods.

Each major political party in the United States, including the Republicans, the Democrats, and the Green Party, as well as several major European, African, South American (Peru), and Australian political parties have statements supporting youth empowerment. Youth empowerment is also a central tenet of the United NationsConvention on the Rights of the Child, which every country in the world (minus the United States and South Sudan) has signed into law.

United States[edit]

Youth empowerment occurs in homes, at schools, through youth organizations, government policy-making and community organizing campaigns. Major structural activities where youth empowerment happens throughout society include community decision-making, organizational planning, and education reform.

Educational activities that cite youth empowerment as an aim include student-centered learning, popular education, and service learning. Free schools and youth-led media organizations often state their intention to empower youth, as well as youth voice, community youth development, and youth leadership programs. Youth empowerment is studied by a variety of scholars including Shawn Ginwright, Henry Giroux, Barry Checkoway, Mike Males and Marc A. Zimmerman. Their research is highlighted by advocacy from notable activists such as William Upski Wimsatt, Alex Koroknay-Palicz, Salome Chasnoff and Adam Fletcher.

Republic of Ireland[edit]

Main article: Comhairle na nÓg

In 2002 Comhairle na nÓg was established in each local authority area as part of the National Children's strategy. Comhairle na nÓg is Irish for Youth Council. These councils are encouraged to include the participation of young people from all walks of life and to tackle local issues affecting young people. It is run by the local county or city councils under the Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs. It is a recognized political organisation by the Irish Government. An extension of Comhairle na nÓg is the Comhairle na nÓg National Executive. The National Executive has one "youth councillor" from every Comhairle na nÓg and deal with issues important to young people. These issues are nominated by young people themselves at an AGM every two years. The Comhairle na nÓg National Executive has the opportunity to express there views in a form of a researched report, ad-campaign, conferences, seminars and to put those views to policy makers.

Commonwealth[edit]

The 53 member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations have all signed up to the Commonwealth Plan of Action for Youth Empowerment (2007–2015). The Plan of Action underpins the work of the Commonwealth Youth Programme (CYP). On the Commonwealth definition, "Young people are empowered when they acknowledge that they have or can create choices in life, are aware of the implications of those choices, make an informed decision freely, take action based on that decision and accept responsibility for the consequences of those actions. Empowering young people means creating and supporting the enabling conditions under which young people can act on their own behalf, and on their own terms, rather than at the direction of others."

The Plan of Action for Youth Empowerment was developed by the Commonwealth Secretariat, working closely with Ministers of Youth and young people themselves. It encourages youth mainstreaming and contains thirteen action points for governments. The first of these is: “Develop and implement measures to promote the economic enfranchisement of young people” through a range of measures ranging from micro-credit and entrepreneurship education through to reviewing macro-economic planning and trade regimes and how they affect young people. Other action points address gender equality, HIV/AIDS, education, the environment, youth participation in decision-making, and democracy and human rights.

Benefits of empowerment[edit]

When youth participate in established empowerment programs they see a variety of benefits. The practices of youth involvement and empowerment become embedded within the organizational culture and the community culture.[3] Adults and organizations also benefit from empowerment programs. The both become more communicable and responsive to youth in the community, which leads to program improvements as well as increased participation from youth.[3]

Critiques of youth empowerment[edit]

One major critique of youth empowerment is that most programs take a risk-focused approach.[13] There has been a major emphasis on what is going wrong for youth in their lives rather than what goes right. This portrays young people as a problem that need to be fixed, and displays the process of development as a process of overcoming risk. This may deter youth from joining youth development programs. The risked-based model can obscure the fact that adolescence is a time when young people master skills and concepts.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Harris, A., Wyn, J. & Younes, S. (2010). Beyond apathetic or activist youth: ‘Ordinary' young people and contemporary forms of participation, Young, 18, 1, 9-32.
  • Sukarieh, M. & Tannock, S. (2011). The positive imperative: a critical look at the ‘new' youth development movement, Journal of Youth Studies, 14, 6, 675-691.
  • Evans S. (2007) Youth Sense of community: voice and power in community context, Journal of Community Psychology, 35, No. 6, 693–709.
  • Morsillo J., Prilleltensky I. (2007) Social Action with youth: interventions, evaluation and psychopolitical validity, Journal of Community Psychology, 35, No. 6, 725–740
  • Tsekoura, M. (2016). Spaces for Youth Participation and Youth Empowerment Case Studies from the UK and Greece. Young, DOI: 10.1177/1103308815618505.
  • Zeldin S., Petrokubi, MacNeil C. (2008) Youth-Adult Partnerships in Decision Making: Disseminating and Implementing an Innovative Idea into Established Organizations and Communities, American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 262–277.
  • Roger A. Hart (2013). Children's Participation: The Theory and Practice of Involving Young Citizens in Community Development and Environmental Care. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-17222-1. 
  • "What works in enhancing social and emotional skills development during childhood and adolescence?"(PDF). WHO. 2015. 
  • European Commission (2015). Empowering young people to participate in society(PDF). Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-79-46640-3.  (Council of Europe and European Union Report)
Youth participating in 4-H, a youth empowerment organization primarily in the United States.
  1. ^ abcdefghijklKar, Snehendu B; Pascual, Catherine A; Chickering, Kirstin L (1999-12-01). "Empowerment of women for health promotion: a meta-analysis". Social Science & Medicine. 49 (11): 1431–1460. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00200-2. 
  2. ^Golay, Dominique; Malatesta, Dominique (2014). Children's councils implementation : a path toward recognition ? In D. Stoecklin & J.-M. Bonvin (Eds.), Children’s Rights and the Capability Approach. Challenges and Prospects. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 109–130. 
  3. ^ abcLedford, Meredith King; Lucas, Bronwyn (2013). "Youth Empowerment: The theory and its implementation"(PDF). Youth Empowerment Solutions. Youth Empowerment Solutions. Retrieved November 21, 2015. 
  4. ^ abSazama, J. & Young, K. (2006) 15 Points to Successfully Involving Youth in Decision-Making, Boston: Youth jHGbagY On Board.
  5. ^Zimmerman, Marc A. (2000-01-01). Rappaport, Julian; Seidman, Edward, eds. Empowerment Theory. Springer US. pp. 43–63. ISBN 9781461368816. 
  6. ^Zimmerman, Marc A. (1995-10-01). "Psychological empowerment: Issues and illustrations". American Journal of Community Psychology. 23 (5): 581–599. doi:10.1007/BF02506983. ISSN 1573-2770. 
  7. ^ abReischl, Thomas M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P.; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B.; Roberts, Everett (2011-12-01). "Youth empowerment solutions for violence prevention". Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. 22 (3): 581–600, xiii. ISSN 1934-4287. PMID 22423465. 
  8. ^ abcdefEdralin, Divina M.; Tibon, Maria Victoria P.; Tugas,, Florenz C. (Jan 2015). "Initiating Women Empowerment and Youth Development through Involvement in Non-Formal Education in Three Selected Parishes: An Action Research on Poverty Alleviation". DLSU Business & Economics Review. Vol. 24 (Issue 2,): p108–123. ISSN 0116-7111. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  9. ^ abcKrauss, Steven Eric; Collura, Jessica; Zeldin, Shepherd; Ortega, Adriana; Abdullah, Haslinda; Sulaiman, Abdul Hadi (2013-10-12). "Youth–Adult Partnership: Exploring Contributions to Empowerment, Agency and Community Connections in Malaysian Youth Programs". Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 43 (9): 1550–1562. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-0027-1. ISSN 0047-2891. 
  10. ^Catalano, Richard F.; Berglund, M. Lisa; Ryan, Jean A. M.; Lonczak, Heather S.; Hawkins, J. David (2004-01-01). "Positive Youth Development in the United States: Research Findings on Evaluations of Positive Youth Development Programs". The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 591 (1): 98–124. doi:10.1177/0002716203260102. ISSN 0002-7162. 
  11. ^"Youth empowerment programs". County Health Rankings & Roadmaps. Retrieved 2015-11-09. 
  12. ^ abMatin, I., & Hulme, D. (2003). Programs for the poorest: Learning from the IGVGD program in Bangladesh. World Development, 31(3), 647-665.
  13. ^ abcdGuerra, Nancy G.; Bradshaw, Catherine P. (2008-12-01). "Linking the prevention of problem behaviors and positive youth development: Core competencies for positive youth development and risk prevention". New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. 2008 (122): 1–17. doi:10.1002/cd.225. ISSN 1534-8687. 
  14. ^ abFranzen, Susan; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Reischl, Thomas M.; Zimmerman, Marc A. (2009-10-16). "Using Process Evaluation to Strengthen Intergenerational Partnerships in the Youth Empowerment Solutions Program". Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community. 37 (4): 289–301. doi:10.1080/10852350903196290. ISSN 1085-2352. PMID 19830624. 
  15. ^Fuentes, Vanessa E.; Goncy, Elizabeth A.; Sutherland, Kevin S. (2016-05-17). "Cross-Cultural Perspectives After Participation in the YES Program: A Pilot Study". Journal of Youth Development. 10 (3). ISSN 2325-4017. 
  16. ^ abMutumbulwa, Fransina. "Empowering youth and women through Pots of Hope." Sister Namibia 20.3 (2008): 16+. Global Issues In Context. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.
  17. ^ abLandrieu, Josey; Pierson Russo, Jessica. "The What, How, and Why of 21st Century Urban Youth Development". Reclaiming Children & Youth. Vol. 23 (Issue 3): p48–52. ISSN 1089-5701. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
  18. ^ ab"Youth empowerment". UNDP. Retrieved 2015-11-09. 
  19. ^"Global Highlights: USAID Youth Programs". www.usaid.gov. Retrieved 2015-11-09. 
  20. ^(1998) "Examining empowerment: A 'how-to' guide for youth development professionals"Journal of Extension, December 1998

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