Essay On Uses Of Roads

This article is about public roads. For other uses of highway, see Highway (disambiguation).

A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, autoroute, etc.

In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are often state highways (Canada: provincial highways). Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the US and Ontario. These classifications refer to the level of government (state, provincial, county) that maintains the roadway.

In British English, "highway" is primarily a legal term. Everyday use normally implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc.

The term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman.

The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway".

Overview[edit]

Major highways are often named and numbered by the governments that typically develop and maintain them. Australia's Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs almost the entire way around the continent. China has the world's largest network of highways followed closely by the United States of America. Some highways, like the Pan-American Highway or the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U.S. Route 10, which crosses Lake Michigan.

Traditionally highways were used by people on foot or on horses. Later they also accommodated carriages, bicycles and eventually motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing heavily in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense.

Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries usually incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity, efficiency, and safety to various degrees. Such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, and grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport. These features are typically present on highways built as motorways (freeways).

Terminology[edit]

England and Wales[edit]

The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction; this is distinct from e.g. the popular use of the word in the US. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance"[1] usually accompanied by "at all times"; ownership of the ground is for most purposes irrelevant thus the term encompasses all such ways from the widest trunk roads in public ownership to the narrowest footpath providing unlimited pedestrian access over private land.

A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic (i.e. vehicular, horse, pedestrian) or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic; usually a highway available to vehicles is available to foot or horse traffic, a highway available to horse traffic is available to pedestrians but exceptions can apply usually in the form of a highway only being available to vehicles or subdivided into dedicated parallel sections for different users.

A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as often will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback. The status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are typically dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted (taken into the care and control of a council or other public authority). In England and Wales, a public highway is also known as "The Queen's Highway".[2]

The core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation. This is typically in the case of bridges, tunnels and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are commonly toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them (in a legal order applying only to the individual structure) to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway.

Scotland[edit]

Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England as a highway will often in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads (Scotland) Act 1984 (but only "in this act" although other legislation could imitate) simply as a road, that is :-

  • "any way (other than a waterway) over which there is a public right of passage (by whatever means [and whether subject to a toll or not]) and includes the road’s verge, and any bridge (whether permanent or temporary) over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes; and any reference to a road includes a part thereof; "

The word highway is itself no longer a statutory expression in Scots law[3] but remains in common law.

United States[edit]

In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road, street, and parkway";[4] however, in practical and useful meaning, a "highway" is a major and significant, well-constructed road that is capable of carrying reasonably heavy to extremely heavy traffic.[citation needed] Highways generally have a route number designated by the state and federal departments of transportation.[clarification needed]

California Vehicle Code, Sections 360, 590, define a "highway" as only a way open for use of motor vehicles, but the California Supreme Court has held that "the definition of 'highway' in the Vehicle Code is used for special purposes of that act," and that canals of the Los Angeles neighborhood of Venice, California, are "highways" that are entitled to be maintained with state highway funds.[5]

Smaller roads may be termed byways.[6]

History[edit]

See also: Road and History of road transport

Modern highway systems developed in the 20th century as the automobile gained popularity. The world's first limited access road was constructed on Long Island New York in the United States known as the Long Island Motor Parkway or the Vanderbilt Motor Parkway. It was completed in 1911.[7] Construction of the Bonn–Cologne autobahn began in 1929 and it was opened in 1932 by the mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer.[8]

In the USA, the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 (Phipps Act) enacted a fund to create an extensive highway system. In 1922, the first blueprint for a national highway system (the Pershing Map) was published. The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 allocated $25 billion for the construction of the 41,000-mile-long (66,000 km) Interstate Highway System over a 20-year period.[9]

In Great Britain, the Special Roads Act 1949 provided the legislative basis for roads for restricted classes of vehicles and non-standard or no speed limits applied (later mostly termed motorways but now with speed limits not exceeding 70 mph);[10] in terms of general road law this legislation overturned the usual principle that a road available to vehicular traffic was also available to horse or pedestrian traffic as is usually the only practical change when non-motorways are reclassified as special roads. The first section of motorway in the UK opened in 1958 (part of the M6 motorway) and then in 1959 the first section of the M1 motorway.[11]

Social effects[edit]

Reducing travel times relative to city or town streets, modern highways with limited access and grade separation create increased opportunities for people to travel for business, trade or pleasure and also provide trade routes for goods. Modern highways reduce commute and other travel time but additional road capacity can also release latent traffic demand. If not accurately predicted at the planning stage, this extra traffic may lead to the new road becoming congested sooner than would otherwise be anticipated by considering increases in vehicle ownership. More roads allow drivers to use their cars when otherwise alternatives may have been sought, or the journey may not have been made, which can mean that a new road brings only short-term mitigation of traffic congestion.

Where highways are created through existing communities, there can be reduced community cohesion and more difficult local access. Consequently, property values have decreased in many cutoff neighborhoods, leading to decreased housing quality over time.

Economic effects[edit]

Main article: Transport economics

In transport, demand can be measured in numbers of journeys made or in total distance travelled across all journeys (e.g. passenger-kilometres for public transport or vehicle-kilometres of travel (VKT) for private transport). Supply is considered to be a measure of capacity. The price of the good (travel) is measured using the generalised cost of travel, which includes both money and time expenditure.

The effect of increases in supply (capacity) are of particular interest in transport economics (see induced demand), as the potential environmental consequences are significant (see externalities below).

In addition to providing benefits to their users, transport networks impose both positive and negative externalities on non-users. The consideration of these externalities—particularly the negative ones—is a part of transport economics. Positive externalities of transport networks may include the ability to provide emergency services, increases in land value and agglomeration benefits. Negative externalities are wide-ranging and may include local air pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, safety hazards, community severance and congestion. The contribution of transport systems to potentially hazardous climate change is a significant negative externality which is difficult to evaluate quantitatively, making it difficult (but not impossible) to include in transport economics-based research and analysis. Congestion is considered a negative externality by economists.[12]

A 2016 study finds that for the United States "a 10% increase in a region's stock of highways causes a 1.7% increase in regional patenting over a five-year period."[13]

Environmental effects[edit]

Main article: Environmental impacts of roads

Highways are extended linear sources of pollution.

Roadway noise increases with operating speed so major highways generate more noise than arterial streets. Therefore, considerable noise health effects are expected from highway systems. Noise mitigation strategies exist to reduce sound levels at nearby sensitive receptors. The idea that highway design could be influenced by acoustical engineering considerations first arose about 1973.[14][15]

Air quality issues: Highways may contribute fewer emissions than arterials carrying the same vehicle volumes. This is because high, constant-speed operation creates an emissions reduction compared to vehicular flows with stops and starts. However, concentrations of air pollutants near highways may be higher due to increased traffic volumes. Therefore, the risk of exposure to elevated levels of air pollutants from a highway may be considerable, and further magnified when highways have traffic congestion.

New highways can also cause habitat fragmentation, encourage urban sprawl and allow human intrusion into previously untouched areas, as well as (counterintuitively) increasing congestion, by increasing the number of intersections.

They can also reduce the use of public transport, indirectly leading to greater pollution.

High-occupancy vehicle lanes are being added to some newer/reconstructed highways in North America and other countries around the world to encourage carpooling and mass-transit. These lanes help reduce the number of cars on the highway and thus reduces pollution and traffic congestion by promoting the use of carpooling in order to be able to use these lanes. However, they tend to require dedicated lanes on a highway, which makes them difficult to construct in dense urban areas where they are the most effective.

To address habitat fragmentation, wildlife crossings have become increasingly popular in many countries. Wildlife crossings allow animals to safely cross human-made barriers like highways.[16]

Road traffic safety[edit]

Main article: Road traffic safety

Road traffic safety describes the safety performance of roads and streets, and methods used to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) on the highway system from traffic collisions. It includes the design, construction and regulation of the roads, the vehicles used on them and the training of drivers and other road-users.

A report published by the World Health Organization in 2004 estimated that some 1.2m people were killed and 50m injured on the roads around the world each year[17] and was the leading cause of death among children 10–19 years of age.

The report also noted that the problem was most severe in developing countries and that simple prevention measures could halve the number of deaths.[18] For reasons of clear data collection, only harm involving a road vehicle is included.[19] A person tripping with fatal consequences or dying for some unrelated reason on a public road is not included in the relevant statistics.

Statistics[edit]

The United States has the world's largest network of highways, including both the Interstate Highway System and the U.S. Highway System. At least one of these networks is present in every state and they interconnect most major cities.

China's highway network is the second most extensive in the world, with a total length of about 3.573 million km.[20][21][22][23][24] China's expressway network is the longest Expressway system in the world, and it is quickly expanding, stretching some 85,000 km at the end of 2011.[25][26] In 2008 alone, 6,433 km expressways were added to the network.[27]

Longest international highway
The Pan-American Highway, which connects many countries in the Americas, is nearly 25,000 kilometres (15,500 mi) long as of 2005[update].[citation needed] The Pan-American Highway is discontinuous because there is a significant gap in it in southeastern Panama, where the rainfall is immense and the terrain is entirely unsuitable for highway construction.
Longest national highway (point to point)
Trans-Canada Highway has two routes, with the northern Route spanning 7,821 km (4,860 mi) long as of 2006[update] alone, and over 10,700 km long including the southern portion. The T.C.H. runs east-west across southern Canada, the populated portion of the country, and it connects many of the major urban centres along its route crossing almost all of the provinces, and reaching almost all of the capital cities.[28] The T.C.H. begins on the east coast in Newfoundland, traverses that island, and crosses to the mainland by ferry. It reaches most of the Maritime Provinces of eastern Canada, and a side route using ferries traverses the province of Prince Edward Island. After crossing the two most populous provinces of Quebec and Ontario, the T.C.H. continues westward across Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. After reaching Vancouver, B.C., on the Pacific Coast, there is a ferry route west to Vancouver Island and the provincial capital city of Victoria, B.C.
Longest national highway (circuit)
Australia's Highway 1 at over 14,500 km (9,000 mi).[citation needed] It runs almost the entire way around the continent's coastline. With the exception of the Federal Capital of Canberra, which is far inland, Highway 1 links all of Australia's capital cities, although Brisbane and Darwin are not directly connected, but rather are bypassed short distances away. Also, there is a ferry connection to the island state of Tasmania, and then a stretch of Highway 1 that links the major towns and cities of Tasmania, including Launceston and Hobart (this state’s capital city).
Largest national highway system
The United States of America has approximately 6.43 million kilometres (4,000,000 mi) of highway within its borders as of 2008[update].[29]
Busiest highway
Highway 401 in Ontario, Canada, has volumes surpassing an average of 500,000 vehicles per day in some sections of Toronto as of 2006[update].[30][31]
Widest highway (maximum number of lanes)
The Katy Freeway (part of Interstate 10) in Houston, Texas, has a total of 26 lanes in some sections as of 2007[update].[citation needed][32] However, they are divided up into general use/ frontage roads/ HOV lanes, restricting the traverse traffic flow.
Widest highway (maximum number of through lanes)
Interstate 5 along a two-mile-long (3.2 km) section between Interstate 805 and California State Route 56 in San Diego, California, which was completed in April 2007, is 22 lanes wide.[33]
Highest international highway
The Karakoram Highway, between Pakistan and China, is at an altitude of 4,693 metres (15,397 ft).[citation needed]

Bus lane[edit]

Some countries incorporate bus lanes onto highways.

South Korea[edit]

In South Korea, in February 1995—Bus lane (essentially an HOV-9) established between the northern terminus and Sintanjin for important holidays and on 1 July 2008—Bus lane enforcement between Seoul and Osan (Sintanjin on weekends) becomes daily between 6 AM and 10 PM. On 1 October this is adjusted to 7 AM to 9 PM weekdays, 9 AM to 9 PM weekends.

Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, some highways are set up with bus lanes to solve the traffic congestion.

Philippines[edit]

Traffic congestion was a principal problem in major roads and highways in the Philippines, especially in Metro Manila and other major cities. The government decided to set up some bus lanes in Metro Manila like in the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue.

Gallery[edit]

  • A typical expressway in China

  • 32-lane toll plaza at an Indian expressway

See also[edit]

General[edit]

By country[edit]

References[edit]

The term highway includes any public road. This is an unpaved highway in Northern England.
Cyclists on Highway M-185 in the US state of Michigan
King Faisal Highway Manama, Bahrain
Delhi Noida Flyway in India
The Dukhan Highway going between Doha and Dukhan, in Qatar
A German Autobahn in the 1930s.
Noise, light and air pollution are negative environmental effects highways can have on their surroundings.
International sign used widely in Europe denoting the start of special restrictions for a section of highway classed as a motorway.





The Good Roads Movement, facsimile publications from Making of America, a digital library of primary sources in 19th- and early 20th-century American social history [Cornell home page: http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/moa; University of Michigan home page: http://moa.umdl.umich.edu].
"The Good Roads Movement and the California Bureau of Highways," by Charles Freeman Johnson, in Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, 1896. Includes a discussion of the Good Roads campaign nationwide.
     Part I, Sept. 1896, pp. 247-261.
     http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/m/moajrnl/moajrnl-idx?notisid=
     AHJ1472-1395OVER-43
     Part II, Oct. 1896, pp. 442-455.
     http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/m/moajrnl/moajrnl-idx?notisid=
     AHJ1472-1395OVER-80

A review of The Gospel of Good Roads, 1891
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABS1821-0023-563
A review and summary of Isaac Potter's 1891 The Gospel of Good Roads: A Letter from an American Farmer, in Manufacturer and Builder, October 1891.

"Ancient and Modern Highways," by Charles Livy Whittle, The New England Magazine, February 1898, pp. 749-766.
http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=
AFJ3026-0023-108
An illustrated history of roads including an overview of the Good Roads campaign.

"Divided Highways: The Interstates and the Transformation of American Life," PBS, 1997.
http://www.pbs.org/weta/dividedhighways
A history of road building in America is included in this extensive website accompanying the 1997 PBS documentary "Divided Highways," including the full transcript of the film, excerpts from the companion book, video clips, a teacher's guide, and related weblinks.


History of the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FWHA By Day)
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/byday/intro.htm
An extensive day-by-time timeline that incorporates a substantial history of American road development in the 20th century. To search the timeline for specific names and innovations, use the FWHA site search page at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/search.html.


The Macadamized Road: An 1881 Description
http://members.nbci.com/mspong/indx_mn.html (search for "macadamized road" on this page)
Directions for macadamizing a road in the 1881 Household Cyclopedia of General Information, from the online version created by Matthew Spong (and awarded a top six-star rating by the University of Wisconsin Scout Report project).


The Road Drag
http://www.gladwell.com/1999_12_06_a_clicks.htm
A discussion of the King road drag (as a precursor to improved rural roads) introduces this article on mail-order marketing by Malcolm Gladwell: "Clicks and Mortar," The New Yorker, Dec. 6, 1999.


"Getting out of a rut: 20th century roads paved the way for modern autos."
http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/century/episodes/01/currents
Brief, well-illustrated section from the CNN online special, "The Twentieth Century."


Regional Transportation History Sites
http://www.pacificnet.net/~faigin/CA-HWYS/links-regional.html
Extensive list of transportation history sites organized by state, region, and country; on "California Highways," the personal site of Daniel Faigin.


History of the Pennsylvania Turnpike
http://www.pahighways.com/TollHwys/PATurnpike.html
Abundantly illustrated history of "America's first superhighway." On "Pennsylvania Highways," the personal site of road-map collector Jeff Kitsko.


Histories of specific highways
Among the many histories of specific highways on the Web which relate to the themes in this essay, (and which are well presented and illustrated), are:
"Coast to Coast on U.S. Highway 50: A Brief History of America's Backbone (aka 'The Loneliest Road in America') and How It Came To Pass in Central
Colorado
," Colorado Central Magazine, January 1999.
http://www.route50.com/history.htm

"The Lincoln Highway [first U.S. coast-to-coast]: A Brief History."
http://www.ugcs.caltech.edu/~jlin/lincoln/history/part1.html
By James Lin, a graduate student at the University of California at Berkeley. Also includes news articles from 1913 on the construction of the highway.

"Highway 94 History," California.
http://www.hwy94.com/Welcome.htm
Good example of amateur highway history, by members of the Highway 94 Club.

Public Roads, published by the Federal Highway Administration, which primarily covers current highway research and technology and occasionally includes articles on environmental issues and highway history.
--Home page at http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/pubrds.htm
--Archives home page at http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/prarch.htm


Online articles that relate to highway history and environmental issues include:
The Earth Issue [11 articles on highways and the environment], Spring 1995.
Table of Contents: http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/spring95/p95sp.htm

"Milestones for U.S. Highway Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration [Timeline: 1892-1995]," Spring 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/spring96/p96sp44.htm

On the first issue of Public Roads in May 1918, May/June, 2000.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/mayjun00/volume1.htm

"Rewarding Environmental Excellence," Autumn 1995. http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/fall95/p95a38.htm

"Wetland Mitigation: An Early Effort," November/December 1997.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/pr97-12/p51.htm

"A Revolution in Winter [Road] Maintenance," Winter 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/winter96/p96w2.htm

"The Use of Recycled Materials in Highway Construction," Autumn 1994.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/fall94/p94au32.htm

"Attention Motorists . . . The Bats Have Landed on our Bridge!" [protection of an urban colony of bats roosting in a bridge in Austin, Texas], Winter 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/winter96/p96w12.htm

". . . From Dense Ignorance And Otherwise": A (Not Entirely Serious)Look at America's 100 (Plus) Years' War with Europe [in highway technology]," November/December 1997.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/pr97-12/p2.htm

"Federal Aid Road Act of 1916: Building the Foundation," Summer 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer96/p96su2.htm

"From 1916 to 1939: The Federal-State Partnership at Work," Summer 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer96/p96su7.htm

"Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956: Creating the Interstate System," Summer 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer96/p96su10.htm

"Engineering Marvels" (19 segments of the interstate system), Summer 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer96/p96su28.htm

"Three States Claim First Interstate Highway," Summer 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer96/p96su18.htm

"Artists Look at Roads," Summer 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer96/p96su22.htm

"Poetry of the Open Road," Summer 1996.
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pubrds/summer96/p96su20.htm

The History of American Transportation: Paintings by Carl Rakeman
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/rakeman/index.htm
Online exhibition of 14 of the 119 paintings produced by Carl Rakeman for the Bureau of Public Roads from the 1920s through the 1940s. Among the paintings is "The First American Macadam Road" [date of road: 1823] at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/rakeman/1823.htm


"The Ecological Effects of Roads," special section in Conservation Biology, February 2000
Online edition from Blackwell Science, Inc., publisher.
Go to http://www.blacksci.co.uk/~cgilib/bsinc.bin?journal=biology and click
"February 2000."
Listing of the eight articles in this special section on roads in the February 2000 issue
of Conservation Biology.
http://conbio.rice.edu/scb/journal/2-00toc.shtml#start
Highlights of the articles as summarized in "Science Briefs" (April/May 2000) from the
Biodiversity Project, Madison, Wisconsin.
http://civic.bev.net/cca73/articles-letters-opinions/ecoimpacts.htm
"The Ecological Effects of Roads," by Reed Noss http://www.eco-action.org/dt/roads.html
Article (found on numerous activist websites) by conservation biologist and activist Reed Noss, a member of the Board of Governors of the Society for Conservation Biology.


Roads and Public Lands: resources on both sides of the controversial road management policies of the U.S. Forest Service. A web search on "'U.S. Forest Service' AND roads" will deliver numerous additional sites.
The U.S.D.A. Forest Service Road Management Websitehttp://www.fs.fed.us/news/roads
Go to "Complete list of Q&As" for a summary of the old and revised road management policies of the U.S. Forest Service, the center of a growing debate over federal protection of public lands.

Roads on Public Lands: Resources
http://www.fguardians.org/roads.html
List of websites and resources from agencies opposing the U.S. Forest Service's road policies in public lands. From Forest Guardians, an environmental organization in New Mexico.

Animals, Highways, and Roadkill
"Critter Crossings: Linking Habitats and Reducing Roadkill," Federal Highway Administration, 2000.
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/wildlifecrossings/
Online version of the Federal Highway Admn. publication of the same name. Contents include "Wildlife and Highways: An Overview," "A Computer Model for Exploring Highway-Wildlife Relationships," "Bear Underpasses," "Tortoise Underpasses," "Badger Tunnels," "Salamander Tunnels," "Programs to Remove Fish," "Passage Barriers," and more.

"Wildlife in the Fast Lane," Zoogoer, September/October 1999.
http://www.fonz.org/zoogoer/zg1999/so99roads.htm
First-rate and accessible summary of the hazards to wildlife presented by roads, vehicles, noise, lights, etc.; presents the controversy over roads in U.S. public lands and wilderness. From Friends of the National Zoo [D.C.].

"Roadkill: Driving Animals to Their Graves," Animal Issues, Fall 1998.
http://www.api4animals.org/doc.asp?ID=680
Article reviewing research studies, state roadkill data, national roadkill surveys, etc., and recommending measures to reduce roadkill, some of which involve innovations in road design. From the Animal Protection Institute.

"Avoiding Roadkill: Plantings May Be a Death Trap," Associated Press, June 20, 2000.
http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DailyNews/roadkill000620.html Article on the problem of state DOT road plantings having the unintended effect of luring deer to dangerous roadsides. On the site of ABC News.



Return to "The Use of the Land" Links to Online Resources
Return to the essay, Roads, Highways, and Ecosystems






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